CLOMID (Clomifene )
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate. This includes those who have polycystic ovary syndrome.[Use results in a greater chance of twins. It is taken by mouth once a day with a course of treatment generally lasting five days.
Common side effects include pelvic pain and hot flashes. Other side effects can include changes in vision, vomiting, trouble sleeping, ovarian cancer, and seizures. It is not recommended in people with liver disease, abnormal vaginal bleeding of unknown cause, or who are pregnant. Clomifene is in the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) family of medication and is a nonsteroidal medication. It works by causing the release of GnRH by the hypothalamus, and subsequently gonadotropin from the anterior pituitary.
Clomifene was approved for medical use in the United States in 1967.] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication.
Further information: Ovulation induction
Clomifene is one of several alternatives for ovulation induction in those who are infertile due to anovulation or oligoovulation.Evidence is lacking for the use of clomifene in those who are infertile without a known reason.[In such cases, studies have observed a clinical pregnancy rate 5.6% per cycle with clomifene treatment vs. 1.3%–4.2% per cycle without treatment.
Proper timing of the drug is important; it should be taken starting on about the fifth day of the cycle, and there should be frequent intercourse.
The following procedures may be used to monitor induced cycles:
Follicular monitoring with vaginal ultrasound, starting 4–6 days after last pill. Serial transvaginal ultrasound can reveal the size and number of developing follicles. It can also provide presumptive evidence of ovulation such as sudden collapse of the preovulatory follicle, and an increase in fluid volume in the rectouterine pouch. After ovulation, it may reveal signs of luteinization such as loss of clearly defined follicular margins and appearance of internal echoes.
Serum estradiol levels, starting 4–6 days after last pill
Post-coital test 1–3 days before ovulation to check whether there are at least 5 progressive sperm per HPF
Adequacy of LH surge by urine LH surge tests 3 to 4 days after last clomifene pill
Mid-luteal progesterone, with at least 10 ng/ml 7–9 days after ovulation being regarded as adequate.
Repeat dosing: This 5-day treatment course can be repeated every 30 days. The dosage may be increased by 50-mg increments in subsequent cycles until ovulation is achieved.It is not recommended by the manufacturer to use clomifene for more than 6 cycles.
It is no longer recommended to perform an ultrasound examination to exclude any significant residual ovarian enlargement before each new treatment cycle.
Other medical uses
Clomifene has also been used with other assisted reproductive technology to increase success rates of these other modalities.
Clomifene is sometimes used in the treatment of male hypogonadism as an alternative to testosterone replacement therapy. It has been found to increase testosterone levels by 2- to 2.5-times in hypogonadal men.[ Despite the use of questionnaires in testosterone replacement comparator trials being called into question, clomifene’s lower cost, therapeutic benefits, and greater value towards hypogonadism improvement have been noted.
Clomifene has been used in the treatment of gynecomastia. It has been found to be useful in the treatment of some cases of gynecomastia but it is not as effective as tamoxifen or raloxifene for this indication. It has shown variable results for gynecomastia and hence is not recommended for treatment of the condition.